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The End of the Islamic Empire: Download the Free PDF Book "Malapetaka Runtuhnya Khilafah"


Malapetaka Runtuhnya Khilafah: A Free PDF Book on the History and Impact of the Collapse of the Islamic State




If you are interested in learning about the history and impact of the collapse of the Islamic state, also known as the caliphate, you should download the free PDF book "Malapetaka Runtuhnya Khilafah" by Dr. Muhammad al-Maqdisi. This book is a comprehensive and critical analysis of the causes and consequences of the disintegration of the caliphate, which was once a powerful and influential political and religious entity that spanned across many regions and centuries.




Malapetaka Runtuhnya Khilafah Pdf Free



What is the Caliphate?




The caliphate is a term that refers to the Islamic state that was established by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his successors, known as the caliphs. The caliphate was based on the principles of Islam and aimed to unite all Muslims under one authority and one law. The caliphate also had a role in spreading Islam to other lands and defending it from enemies.


The first caliphate was the Rashidun caliphate (632-661 CE), which was led by four of the Prophet's companions: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. The second caliphate was the Umayyad caliphate (661-750 CE), which expanded the Islamic empire to North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, and India. The third caliphate was the Abbasid caliphate (750-1258 CE), which ushered in a golden age of Islamic civilization in science, culture, art, and literature. The fourth caliphate was the Ottoman caliphate (1299-1924 CE), which ruled over most of the Middle East, Southeast Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia.


What Caused the Collapse of the Caliphate?




The collapse of the caliphate was not a sudden or single event, but a gradual and complex process that involved many factors and actors. Some of the main causes of the collapse of the caliphate were:


  • The internal divisions and conflicts among Muslims over political and religious issues, such as succession, leadership, doctrine, sects, and movements.



  • The external pressures and threats from non-Muslim powers, such as the Crusaders, Mongols, Safavids, Mamluks, British, French, Russians, and others.